Indicator 10. Schemes used to promote better access to VET

a) Information on existing schemes at different levels;
b) Evidence of their effectiveness.


Schemes used to promote better access to VET:
a) Type of schemes used to improve access to VET;
b) Information demonstrating the capacity of the VET system to increase access to VET.

Key Information

The following Questions & Answers, therefore, may be useful in interpreting this indicator and in supporting its implementation. 

Recommended Use

What is the policy rationale for Indicator 10 and what is it useful for?

The purpose of the policy is to promote access to VET, including for disadvantaged groups, and to support adapted training provision.

Usefulness of indicator 10

Indicator 10 is a process indicator which

  • Assists in supporting accessibility and adapted training provision of VET, including disadvantaged groups;
  • May be used for mutual learning and planning;
  • May be useful in the planning, implementation, evaluation and review phases of the quality cycle.

Related Indicators

Which other EQAVET indicators may be used to improve understanding or provide additional information?

Indicator 4: Completion rate in VET programmes

Indicator 8: Prevalence of vulnerable groups

Technical and contextual caveats

Q: Which specific issues should be considered in order to avoid misapplication and/or misinterpretation of this indicator?


  • Existing or planned schemes, plans, policies may be linked with other governmental initiatives to catalyse demands for skills needed in the emerging sustainable economy;
  • Issue of flexibility of education and training in responding a) to group and individual needs ; b) to labour market needs;
  • This indicator can provide leverage and accountability for progressing equity issues in VET policy and may reveal which key focus areas are more effectively promoted at national level;
  • Data sources from different databases would need a common identifier to link data.

Additional information

Which other issues may influence the use of this indicator

  • The existence (or the planned establishment) of system-level mechanisms for ongoing advice and direction to guide the VET (sub)system’s response to the needs and aspirations learners may need to move down to the level of VET providers;
  • Partnerships with employers are crucial, since pathways from VET into meaningful work and employment are not always clear;
  • Whenever reforms take place in an Education and Training system, the VET (sub) system needs to be a pro- active partner in the process and advocate its socioeconomic significance in order to ensure a sustainable systemic change.

Technical Notes

Components: Which data elements are needed to generate this indicator?

  • This is a qualitative indicator that requires investigation on which schemes/ measures, both at system and providers’ level, are capable of addressing the issue of improving access and equity in VET;
  • These initiatives should also explore how VET is successful in striking a balance between the pursuit of achieving economic outcomes while promoting equity for disadvantaged groups;
  • Another valuable element to generate this indicator is to demonstrate how VET provision links to improved employment and individual and societal development outcomes.


Formula: Which mathematical formula may be used for computing the indicator value?

Not applicable


Reported Subgroups: Which subgroups are commonly reported for this indicator?

  • Society at large and VET stakeholders, in particular ( e.g. learners, employers, social partners);
  • Vulnerable groups as defined at European and national levels.


Data Requirements: What type of data may be useful to gather on this indicator?

Schemes used to promote better access to VET:

Indicator 10a)
Type of scheme
(e.g. plans, policies, programmes): planning, implementing, evaluating and informed decision making put in place in order to promote better access to VET, especially for disadvantaged groups:

  • Scope: policies, processes, procedures; medium or long term interventions; national and European levels, IVET and CVET, excluding informal but integrate non formal VET;
  • Coverage: disadvantaged groups – as defined at European and national level;
  • Suitability of training for the demands for actual and future needs of specific disadvantaged groups and individuals;
  • Flexibility: how fast education can respond to group and individual specific needs.


Indicator 10b)
Evidence of their effectiveness

In order to measure the effectiveness, this indicator/descriptor refers not only to the schemes themselves (how they are planned and implemented) but also to the capacity of the VET system to increase the access by evaluating them and by deciding further action:

  • Share of the population from disadvantaged group entering VET related with the majority share;
  • Employability: effects on unemployment by disadvantaged groups and employability after the introduction of a specific scheme;
  • Individual and group satisfaction related with the access to VET system.

NOTE: for further information on schemes used to promote better access to Vocational Education and Training in Estonia, Hungary and Portugal, please click here

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