Indicator 3. Participation rate in VET programmes
Number of participants in VET programmes (1), according to the type of programme and the individual criteria (2)
- (1) For IVET: a period of 6 weeks of training is needed before a learner is counted as a participant for LLL (Lifelong learning): percentage of population admitted to formal VET programmes.
- (2) Besides basic information on gender and age, other social criteria might be applied, e.g. early school leavers, highest educational achievement, migrant, handicapped persons, length of unemployment, etc.
a) Percentage of annual cohort completing lower secondary school/compulsory education participating in IVET programmes at upper secondary level (which lead to a formal qualification);
b) Percentage of active population (15-74 years old) entering CVET programmes (which lead to recognition).
The following Questions & Answers, may be useful in interpreting this indicator and in supporting its implementation.
What is the policy rationale for Indicator 3 and what is it useful for?
The purpose of the policy is to obtain basic information at system and provider levels on the attractiveness of VET and to target support to increase access to VET, including for disadvantaged groups.
Usefulness of Indicator 3
Indicator 3 is an input/process/output indicator which
- May assist in obtaining basic information at VET-system and VET-provider levels on the attractiveness of VET and in targeting support to increase access to VET, including for disadvantaged groups;
- May be used for the planning, implementation, evaluation and review phases of the quality cycle. It may also be used to set up reward schemes and budget target setting.
Which other EQAVET indicators may be used to improve understanding or provide additional information?
EQAVET Supplementary Indicators:
Indicator 2a) Percentage of entries to IVET not coming directly from compulsory or lower secondary education;
Indicator 3a) Percentage of annual cohort completing upper secondary school, entering VET programmes at post-secondary or tertiary level (which lead to a formal qualification).
Other EQAVET Indicators:
Indicator 1 : Relevance of quality assurance systems for VET providers
Indicator 4: Completion rate in VET programmes
Indicator 5: Placement rate in VET programmes
Indicator 7: Unemployment rate - according to individual criteria
Technical and contextual caveats
Which specific issues should be considered in order to avoid misapplication and /or misinterpretation of the indicator?
The following issues need to be considered:
- Programme participation includes some pre- set requirements, e.g. for IVET a period of 6 weeks of training is needed before a learner is counted as a participant for LLL (Lifelong learning);
- Labour market demand for an adequately skilled workforce may require incentives or disincentives for learners’ enrolment in particular occupational fields;
- Equity objectives may considered for participation in training by particular target groups;
- Breakdown of information: for example enrolments, full-time/part-time status and whether study is contact or distance;
- Existing data protection issues;
- Data forCVET is likely to be held by a number of organisations and links might not be well established. This indicator may be adequate for publicly-funded training, but problematic for other training. Use of surveys (the Labour Force Survey is the most commonly used), rather than precise data might be a more realistic approach;
- Data sources from different databases would need a common identifier to link data.
Which other issues may influence the use of this indicator?
- Given the diversity of VET systems across Europe, national and regional stakeholders are an important source of information to capture some of the story behind the outcomes;
- You may need to consider i) previous working experience ii) vulnerable groups;
- Targeted interventions and/or other factors are likely to influence the number of participants in various VET programmes, e.g. career advising at school level, promotion campaigns by government.
Components: Which data elements are needed to generate this indicator?
Numerator: Number of participants in IVET programmes at upper secondary level.
Denominator: Number of learners (including by age, gender or other factors in which you are interested) who have completed lower secondary/ compulsory education in a given year.
Numerator: Number of participants (including by age, gender or other factors in which you are interested) in a CVET programme aged between 15-64 years.
Denominator: Number of population aged 15-64.
Formula: Which mathematical formula may be used for computing the indicator value?
Number of participants in IVET programmes at upper secondary level divided by number of learners (including by age, gender or other factors in which you are interested) who have completed lower secondary/ compulsory education in a given year x 100.
Number of participants (including by age, gender or other factors in which you are interested) in a CVET programme aged between 15-64 years divided by population aged 15-64 x 100.
Reported Subgroups: Which subgroups are commonly reported for this indicator?
- You may consider subgroups which are relevant at national, regional and local level, IVET and CVET providers, citizenship, gender; age, vulnerable groups ( e.g. early school leavers, people with disabilities); highest level of education or training successfully completed, length of unemployment,
Data requirements: What type of data may be useful to gather on this indicator?
Participation rate in VET programmes:
- Type of VET programmes: IVET programmes which lead to a qualification and CVET programmes which lead to recognition;
- Population in CVET: active/working population (15-64 years old);
- Participation: total participation, not merely those who receive a qualification;
- Social criteria: need to consider i) previous working experience ii) vulnerable groups (e.g. early school leavers, people with disabilities).