Brief description of the context of the VET system in Turkey

VET is mainly state controlled and the responsibility of the Ministry of National Education (MoNE), which comprises numerous directorates, councils and boards. Formal VET is administered by the MoNE Directorate General of Vocational Education and Training (DG VET) and non-formal VET by the MoNE Directorate General of Lifelong Learning (DG LLL); post upper secondary VET (ISCED 5B) comes under the Council for Higher Education (CoHE). Formal (ISCED 3) VET takes place in Vocational and Technical Anatolian High Schools; Vocational and Technical Education Centres; and Multi Programmed Anadolu High Schools and in a range of private schools recognised under various laws, e.g. schools run by enterprises, chambers and Organised Industrial Zones (OIZs). VET is provided through vocational school programmes comprising internships and apprenticeships; employers play an active role. The system is mainly financed by the state with additional funding from: income provided under Law No. 3308; employers; international projects; the public; NGOs; and ‘revolving funds’ (schools generate income through producing and selling goods and services). Companies that support the establishment of private VET schools may be entitled to tax breaks. There is a work-based learning component of varying duration that can also be undertaken during school holidays and at weekends. Career guidance is included as part of class programmes in all types of schools. In 2011, transition from VET to HE became more flexible due to new regulations. ISCED Level 5B VET mainly takes place in public and private tertiary-level vocational schools.

The approach to ‘lifelong learning’ is based on partnership with all stakeholders, especially the private sector. Opportunities for continuous education and training for all (workers, jobseekers, disadvantaged persons) are jointly designed and implemented with stakeholders. Formal and non-formal ISCED 3 provision for adults takes place in a wide range of institutions, including Public Education Centres (PECs), Vocational Education Centres (VECs), Maturation Institutes, Tourism Education Centres (TECs), Open Education Institutions and Vocational and Technical Education Centres (METEM). Courses of varying duration / content and mainly funded by the state offer a combination of face-to-face and distance learning to individuals of varying ages and education levels nationwide and, in the case of Open Secondary Education, to individuals living abroad. A certificate is awarded on successful completion of a course. VET schools also provide VET courses funded by the Turkey Employment Agency (ISKUR) as part of ALMPs (active labour market programme) and the private sector is also involved under protocols signed with MoNE.

Enterprises employing 10 or more staff give occupational skill training to a number of VET students, comprising not less than 5% of its overall number of employees. Enterprises providing occupational skill training to 10 or more students, establish a training unit where qualified trainers are appointed. A number of strategies / measures promote social inclusion through VET, including the National Employment Strategy 2014-2023, National Strategy on Vocational Education and Training 2014-2018, National Lifelong Learning Strategy 2014-2018, Roma Strategy 2013 – 2017. Nationwide programmes supported by the EC and state funds e.g. the Vocational Skills Development Project (MESGEP) support VET for social inclusion. However, existing legal framework needs to be further strengthened to promote social inclusion.

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